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Menstruation refers to the days when the menstrual blood flows from the vagina. A cycle is the time from the first day of menstruation to the last day before the next menstruation. This is different for every woman but normally takes happens about every 21 to 35 days. Usually, menstrual bleeding occurs 28 days after the last period. Normally menstruation starts with heavier bleeding, which becomes lighter over the next few days. The light red blood becomes darker and darker. The menstrual period lasts three to six days and at the end, there may well be spotting with old, brownish blood. As a rule, women lose a total of about 50-60 millilitres of blood during menstruation.
Cycle disturbances or irregularities in the female cycle can occur, which relate to the frequency, duration and strength/heaviness of menstruation. They are normal immediately after the first menstrual period, as menstruation and hormonal changes must first settle down.
There are many causes of cycle disturbances. Since the cycle is hormonally controlled, hormonal disorders, as well as diseases of the female sexual organs, are most often the cause of changes. Moreover, medication, genetic disposition, physical or psychological stress can also be the cause of cycle problems.
Endometriosis is a benign, sometimes painful growth of tissue of the endometrium. The presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity is one of the most common gynaecological diseases. Since female sex hormones have an important influence on the course of the disease, women are usually affected between puberty and menopause. After the menopause, the symptoms can subside or even disappear.
The most common benign growths that occur in the muscle layer of the uterus (myoma) can develop in any woman. It is suspected that the female hormone oestrogen also plays an important role in this process, as does genetic predisposition.
Endometriosis and fibroids are often asymptomatic. Sometimes symptoms that my present are abnormal uterine bleeding, bleeding between periods, prolonged spotting, as well as heavy or painful period pain, fullness in the lower abdomen and pelvic area, enlarged uterus or abdomen, frequent urination, painful bowel movements, pain during sex, lower back pain, infertility, multiple miscarriages or early labour.