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If a woman does not become pregnant for at least a year, despite the desire for children and unprotected sexual intercourse, medicine uses the term infertility. The causes of infertility are various. Because becoming pregnant is influenced by several factors, a disturbance to a single factor can lead to sterility in a woman. The most common reasons for infertility are either from disturbances in the interplay of hormones, the lifestyle one lives or organic diseases. For example, male hormones are produced in the fatty tissue of the female body, being overweight can thus lead to an imbalance of hormones. The consumption of alcohol, nicotine and drugs can harm fertility. Organic causes include adhesions and knots, myomas and endometriosis.
Endometriosis is a benign, sometimes painful growth of tissue of the endometrium. The presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity is one of the most common gynaecological diseases. Since female sex hormones have an important influence on the course of the disease, women are usually affected between puberty and menopause. After the menopause, the symptoms can subside or even disappear.
The most common benign growths that occur in the muscle layer of the uterus (myoma) can develop in any woman. It is suspected that the female hormone oestrogen also plays an important role in this process, as does genetic predisposition.
Endometriosis and fibroids are often asymptomatic. Sometimes symptoms that my present are abnormal uterine bleeding, bleeding between periods, prolonged spotting, as well as heavy or painful period pain, fullness in the lower abdomen and pelvic area, enlarged uterus or abdomen, frequent urination, painful bowel movements, pain during sex, lower back pain, infertility, multiple miscarriages or early labour.